Suomalainen koulujärjestelmä

Esikoulu

Suomessa alaikäinen lapsi käy  esikoulua (puhekielessä eskari). Esikoulussa lasta valmistellaan varsinaisen koulun aloittamiseen opettamalla hänelle erilaisia uusia taitoja. Lapset oppivat muun muassa kirjoittamaan, lukemaan ja piirtämään. Jo esikoulussa tutustutaan joihinkiin kouluaineisiin, kuten kirjallisuuteen, matematiikan alkeisiin ja musiikkiin. Esikoulu järjestää myös retkiä luontoon ja juhlia. Lapsen sosiaaliset taidot kehittyvät ja he saa uusia ystäviä, joiden kanssa ehkä myöhemmin käy samaa koulua. Lapsi myös arjen taitoja, kuten pukeutumaan itsenäisesti ja sitomaan kenkiensä nauhat. Esikoulun tarkoituksena on myös opettaa lapselle arvoja ja kehittää hänen oppimis -ja ajattelukykyään.

Peruskoulu ja jatko-opinnot

Suomessa on yleinen oppivelvollisuus. Se tarkoittaa,että kaikkien 7 vuotta täyttäneiden lasten on pakko käydä peruskoulua. Peruskoulu jaetaan ala-asteeseen (luokat 1 – 6) ja yläasteeseen (luokat 6 – 9). Peruskoulu on kaikille maksuton ja tasa-arvoinen. Tyttöjä ja poikia ei enää jaeta erillisiin kouluihin, kuten oli ennen, vaan kaikki opiskelevat samassa koulussa ja ryhmissä on sekä tyttöjä että poikia. Lapset ovat eritaustaisia: niin kantasuomalaisia kuin maahanmuuttotaustaisiakin, niin hyvätuloisista kuin vähävaraisista perheistä.

ala-asteet eivät enää jaa tyttöjä ja poikia

Kirjat ja vihot lapsille annetaan koulussa. Vanhempien tehtävänä on vain hankkia reppu ja kirjoitusvälineet. Lukuvuosi jakaantuu syys-ja kevätkauteen. Kouluruokailu on kaikille lapsille maksuton. Opiskelu alkaa aamulla klo 8 ja päättyy klo 16, mutta perjantai on yleensä lyhyempi päivä. Syyslukukausi alkaa elokuun puolivälissä ja kestää joulukuun loppuun asti. Silloin koulussa järjestetään joulujuhla, lapset saavat todistukset ja alkaa noin kaksi viikkoa kestävä joululoma. Kevätlukukausi kestää kesän asti ja sen päättyessä pidetään kevätjuhla. Syksyllä siirrytään seuraavaan luokkaan.Niiden oppilaiden, joiden äidinkieli on muu kuin suomi, on mahdollista saada oman äidinkielen opetusta. Opetus toteutuu, jos siihen tarpeeksi moni haluaa osallistua. Voidaan myös yhdistää oppilaat saman kapungin eri kouluista. Maahanmuuttajat voivat käydä valmistavan luokan, ennen tavalliseen kouluun siirtymistä. Vieraana kielenä opiskellaan englantia, ylemmissä luokissa alkaa toisen kotimaisen kielen ruotsin opiskelu. Uskonnon voi korvata elämänkatsomustiedolla. Kotitehtävillä eli läksyillä pyritään tukemaan oppimista, mutta niitä ei anneta liikaa, joten oppilaalla jää aikaa harrastuksiin ja lepoon. Koko ajan ei olla koulussa, vaan tehdään retkiä erilaisiin kohteisiin. Oppiminen tapahtuu myös leikkien ja pelien avulla.

Ruotsin lukioissa ammattiin suuntautunut

Peruskoulun jälkeen voi mennä lukioon tai ammattikouluun. Lukiossa syvennetään ja kerrataan peruskoulussa saatuja tietoja, ja sen tehtävänä on valmistaa yliopistoon. Oppilaan on itse hankittava koulukirjat ja vihot, ja ilmoiduttava kursseihin. Lukio-opinnot kestävät 1 – 4 vuotta. Opintojen päätteeksi suurin osa oppilaista osallistuu ylioppilaskokeisiin. Ylioppilaskoetta on 4 pakollista: suomi äidinkielenä tai toisena kielenä, vieras kieli, reaaliaine ja toinen kotimainen kieli (ruotsi) tai matematiikka. Ylioppilatutkinnon hyväksytysti suorittanut saa ylioppilastodistuksen ja valkoisen lakin. Tämän jälkeen hän voi hakea yliopistoon tai ammattikorkeakouluun. Lukio toimii myös samoilla periaatteilla, kuin peruskoulu, esimerkiksi lukujärjestys ja arvostelu ovat samankaltaisia kuin peruskoulussa ja ruokailu on maksutonta. Ammattikoulussa suoritetaan ammattitutkinto ja sen suoritettuaan voi jatkaa ammattikorkeakouluun. Ammattikouluopetuksessa opetus on käytännöllistä ja usein tapahtuu erilaisissa työpaikoissa.Peruskoulussa ja lukiossa suoritetaan lukuvuoden aikana monia kokeita ja muita tehtäviä, joista saadaan numeroarvosana ja sanallinen palaute, jonka tarkoituksena on tukea oppimista. Arvosanojen asteikko on peruskoulussa ja lukiossa 4 – 10 ja yliopistossa tai ammattikorkeakoulssa 1 – 5. Ylioppilastutkinnossa käytetään latinalaista kirjainasteikkoa I – L,  joissa I tarkoiittaa “hylätty” ja L “erinomainen”. Suomen kouluissa oppilaita ei rangaista huonoista arvosanoista, vaikka aiemmin näin saatettiin tehdä.Kaikessa opetuksessa pyritään ottamaan huomioon oppilaan erityisominaisuudet, kuten lukihäiriö ta keskittymisvaikeudet. Tällaiset oppilaat saavat lisäaikaa esimerkiksi kokeissa, ja myös vaikeisiin aineisiin on mahdollista saada tukea. Opiskelijoiden hyvinvointia pyritään muutenkin tukemaan.Aikuiset voivat suorittaa aikuisperuskoulun ja aikuislukion sekä ammattiopinnot, esimerkiksi töiden ohella iltaopintoina tai verkossa. Suomessa toimii elinikäisen oppimisen periaate ja myös aikuisille annetaan mahdollisuus.

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