SUOMALAINEN KULTTUURI

Suomalainen kulttuuri on Suomen kansan eli suomalaisten kulttuuri. Sen perinteet ja tavat ulottuvat kauas menneisyyteen ja sitovat suomalaisia muihin suomalaisugrilaisiin kansoihin, joiden kanssa suomalaisilla on ollut yhteinen historiallinen kieli- ja kulttuurikehitys. Suomen kulttuuri on tärkeä ja vahva osa suomalaista identiteettiä, ja sitä harjoittavat myös suomen ulkopuolella asuvat suomalaiset. Suomi on ollut pitkään Ruotsin ja sitten Venäjän vallan alla, joten itäinen ja läntinen kulttuuri ovat muokanneet suomalaista kulttuuria niin, että monien ainesten todellista alkuperää ei enää tunnisteta. Kulttuurilla tarkoitetaan esimerkiksi tapoja, perinteitä ja taidetta. Jotkut Suomen kulttuurin elementit ovat tunnettuja maailmalla, kuten esimerkiksi sauna ja Muumit. Usein kuitenkin Suomen kieli ja kulttuuri ovat ulkomaalaisille tuntemattomia, joten he saattavat hämmentyä tullessaan ensimmäistä kertaa Suomeen.

Ruoka

Perinteisiä suomalaisia ruokia ovat esimerkiksi lohikeitto, maksalaatikko, ruisleipä, mämmi, karjalanpiirakat ja mustikkapiirakka. Mämmi on ruista tehty perinneruoka, jota syödään perinteisesti vaniljasokerin tai maidon ja sokerin kera pääsiäisenä. Maksalaatikko on naudan maksasta tehtyä ruokaa, jota tehdään laatikkomuotoisiin vuokiin. Mustikkapiirakka on suosittu kesäherkku ja siihen käytetään metsästä poimittuja mustikoita. Juustoista erikoisin on leipäjuusto eli juustoleipä, jota syödään lakkahillon kera erityisesti Lapissa. Salmiakki on lakritsia muistuttava makeinen. Se jakaa mielipiteitä sen oudon maun vuoksi, tuntuu monesta epämiellyttävältä. Suomessa juodaan paljon kahvia.

Juhlat

vuoden suurin juhla

Suurin suomalainen juhla on joulu. Sitä vietetään 24. – 25.12. Joulua juhlitaan Kristuksen syntymänä, mutta joulu on myös tärkeä syy  levätä ja viettää aikaa perheen kanssa. Jouluna ostetaan ja annetaan paljon lahjoja ja lähetetään joulukortteja. Lapset uskovat Joulupukkiin, joka tuo lahjoja ja vastaa näin amerikkalaista Santaa. Joulupukki asuu Korvatunturilla, Lapissa. Hänellä on vaimo (Muori) ja tontut toimivat hänen apulaisinaan. Joulupukki liikkuu poroilla ja on pukeutunut punaisiin vaatteisiin.  Jouluruokapöytään kuuluu kinkku ja erilaiset laatikkoruuat. Jouluna järjestetään joulukonsertteja ja esitetään joulunäytelmää. Suomalaisella joululla on juuret vanhassa pakanallisessa juhlassa, jota vietettiin sadonkorjuun päätteeksi.Pääsiäinen on kevään juhla ja sitä vietetään Kristuksen ylösnousemuksena. Suomalaiseen pääsiäiseen on sekoittunut itäistä ja läntistä kulttuuria. Tärkeitä pääsiäisen symboolejä ovat tiput, tulppaanit sekä pääsiäispuput.  Syödään munia, lammasta, mämmiä ja rahkasta tehtyä pashaa, joka on alun perin itäslaavilainen ruoka. Lapset etsivät piilotettuja suklaamunia. Pääsiäistä edeltävänä sunnuntaina lapset käyvät taloissa pajuoksien kanssa noitiin pukeutuneina, toivottavat talon asukkaille onnea ja saavat pieniä herkkuja. Keskikesällä vietetään juhannusta, joka on vanha suomalainen juhla. Silloin ollaan usein luonnossa, mökillä, tanssitaan juhannustansseja, saunotaan ja grillataan makkaraa. Juhannukseen kuuluu järvellä sytyttävä nuotio eli kokko.

Kirjallisuus

Kalevala on karjalaissuomalainen eepos, joka on koottu vanhoista kansanrunoista. Tutkija Elias Lönnrot teki 1800-luvulla matkoja Karjalaan, jossa hän keräsi runoja. Kalevalalla on ollut keskeinen rooli suomalaisen identiteetin muodostumisessa. Johan Ludvig Runeberg on suomalainen kansallisrunoilija, jonka runon sanoja käytetään Suomen kansallislaulussa eli Maamme-laulussa. Muita tärkeitä klassikoita ovat Minna Canth, Juhani Aho, Eino Leino, Zacharias Topelius sekä Tove Jansson, joka on luonut maailmassakin suositut muumihahmot.

Musiikki

Jean Sibelius

Jean Sibelius on kansainvälisesti tunnetuin suomalainen säveltäjä, joka on säveltänyt Finlandia-hymnin. Suomessa on ollut myös muita säveltäjiä, sanoittajia ja laulajia, jotka ovat jättäneet merkittävän jäljen suomalaiseen musiikkiin: Olavi Virta, Tapio Rautavaara, Dallapé-orkesteri, Georg Malmsten, Laila Kinnunen ja monia muita. Kansainvälisti menestynein suomalainen laulaja on tällä hetkellä Saara Aalto. Musiikki- ja tanssilajeista tango on ollut erittäin suosittua, sitä ja lauletaan että tanssitaan.

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