Suomen poliittinen historia

Suomen poliittinen identiteetti alkoi kehittyä Suomen ollessa Venäjän alaisuudessa vuosista 1809 vuoteen 1917. Tuon aikakauden aikana Suomella oli autonominen asema Neuvostoliitossa. Poliittinen aktivismi kasvoi asteittain, ja suomalaiset alkoivat vaatia enemmän autonomiaa ja lopulta itsenäisyyttä Suomelle.Suomen ensimmäiset poliittiset puolueet syntyivät kielikiistoista. Fennomaanien ryhmä ajoi suomen kielen asemaa, ja jakautui 1890-luvulla ”vanhoihin” ja ”nuoriin” suomalaisiin. Ruotsin kielen asemaa taas puolsi lyhytikäinen liberaalien puolue.Ajan myötä Suomessa alkoi muodostumaan myös muita puolueita Vanhojen ja Nuorten suomalaisten lisäksi. Vuosisadan lopulla syntyi työväenpuolue, josta vuonna 1903 muodostui Suomen Sosiaalidemokraattinen puolue, SDP. Maanviljelijät muodostivat oman puolueensa, Maalaisliiton, vuonna 1907. Samoihin aikoihin sai syntynsä myös ruotsinkielisen väestön asioita ajava puolue, Svenska Folkpartiet, SFP.Venäjän ensimmäisen vallankumouksen jälkeen suomalaiset saivat mahdollisuuden yksimieliseen lainsäädäntöön ja yleiseen äänioikeuteen, ja Eduskunta sai alkunsa. Vuonna 1907 järjestettiin ensimmäiset kansalliset vaalit, ja vain yhdellä askeleella Suomi muuttui yhdestä Euroopan poliittisesti ongelmallisista maista yhdeksi Euroopan kehittyneimmistä.Suomi itsenäistyi vuonna 1917, joulukuun kuudentena päivänä. Meni vain muutama viikko, kun Suomen poliittiset puolueet kohtasivat niin suuria ristiriitoja, että syntyi sisällissota, joka kesti vuoden 1918 toukokuuhun saakka. Vuonna 1919, yhä tiettyjen erimielisyyksien ja ristiriitojen keskellä, suomalaiset loivat yhdessä uuden perustuslain, sekä 200-paikkaisen Eduskunnan. Suomi koki paljon vaikeuksia niin poliittisesti kuin taloudellisesti sotien välillä, mutta käsitteli niitä paljon paremmin kuin monet muut eurooppalaiset valtiot.

Urho Kekkosen

Toisen maailmansodan jälkeen, 1950-luvun alkupuolella Suomen politiikka alkoi taas uusiutua. Yksikään puolue ei ollut dominoiva, mutta maaseutulaisten puolue pysyi hallintopuolueena Urho Kekkosen hallintakauden loppuun saakka. Vuonna 1966 nimi muuttui Keskustapuolueeksi. Historiallisesti suurin puolue oli Sosiaalidemokraattinen puolue, mutta jakoi tuolloin vasemmistolaisten äänet Suomen Kommunistisen Puolueen, SKP:n kanssa. 1980-luvulla kommunisteilla oli ongelmia sopeutua uusiin sosiaalisiin normeihin, minkä seurauksena SKP hajosi useampaan toisiaan vastaan sotiviin ryhmiin.

Tämän päivän politiikkaa

Nykyinen versio Suomen perustuslaista kirjoitettiin maaliskuun ensimmäisenä päivänä vuonna 2000. Lainsäädännöllinen valta kuuluu parlamentille, kun taas valtion asioita hoitavat tasavallan presidentti ja hallitus. Oikeusvaltaa käyttävät hallituksesta riippumattomat tuomioistuimet. Suomalainen erityispiirre on mahdollisuus tehdä poikkeuksia perustuslaista tavanomaisia lakeja käsitellessä. Suomen puolueiden on toimittava toistensa kanssa yhteistyössä muodostaakseen koalitiohallituksia. Vaikka osa puolueista on paljon vahvempia ja kannatetumpia kuin toiset, ei niillä usein ole mahdollisuutta saavuttaa suurta valtaa yksinään.Tasavallan presidentti valitaan kansanäänestyksellä kuuden vuoden välein, ja nykyisenä presidenttinä toimii Sauli Niinistö. Presidentti käsittelee muun muassa Suomen ulkopoliittisia suhteita, hyväksyy lakeja, voi kutsua ylimääräisiä parlamentaarisia istuntoja, sekä nimittää muun hallituksen pääministerin ehdotusten mukaisesti. Tasavallan presidentti ei voi yksin tehdä esimerkiksi rauhaa ja sotaa koskevia päätöksiä, mutta on asevoimien ylin komentaja. Hallitus muodostuu pääministeristä ja 17 muusta ministeristä, sekä oikeuskanslerista. Hallitus tuottaa suurimman osan materiaalista, jonka parissa Eduskunta työskentelee. Eduskunta on vielä tänäkin päivänä 200-jäseninen, ja omaa muun muassa valtuudet tehdä muutoksia perustuslakiin.

Sosiaalidemokraattinen puolue

Parlamenttipuolueita tänä päivänä ovat Keskusta (KESK), Kokoomus (KOK), Sosiaalidemokraattinen puolue (SDP), Sininen tulevaisuus (SIN), Perussuomalaiset (PS), Vihreä liitto (VIHR), Vasemmistoliitto (VAS), Ruotsalainen kansanpuolue (RKP), Kristillisdemokraatit (KD), sekä Seitsemän tähden liike (TL). Lisäksi, parlamentin ulkopuolisia puolueita ovat Eläinoikeuspuolue (EOP), Kansalaispuolue (KP), Kommunistinen puolue (SKP), Kommunistinen työväenpuolue (KTP), Feministinen puolue (FP), Itsenäisyyspuolue (IPU), Liberaalipuolue (LIB), Piraattipuolue (PP), sekä Suomen Kansa Ensin (SKE). Nämä kaikki ovat Suomen lain mukaisesti rekisteröityjä puolueita. Jotta puolue voidaan rekisteröidä, sillä on oltava demokraattisesti pätevät sisäiset säännöt, ja vähintään 5000 kerättyä allekirjoitusta äänioikeutetuilta kannattajilta.

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