Tarina Suomen itsenäistymisestä

Ennen itsenäistymistään Suomi oli kuulunut pitkään Ruotsin ja sitten 1800-luvulta lähtien keisarillisen Venäjän valtakuntaan. Venäjä kunnioitti Suomen autonomista asemaa ja lakeja, joten Suomen ja Venäjän väliset suhteet pysyivät melkein koko 1800-luvun ajan hyvinä. 1800-luvun lopulla suhteet kuitenkin huononivat niin, että se ja Venäjän vallankumous johti lopulta Suomen irtautumiseen Venäjästä.

Sortokaudet

Venäjän viimeinen keisari, Nikolai II, antoi vuonna 1899 helmikuussa manifestin, jolla hän otti päättämisoikeuden Suomen asioista itselleen. Keisari myös nimitti Suomen kenraalikuvernööriksi N. Bobrikovin. Samalla Suomen ja Venäjän suhteet huononivat ja Suomessa alkoi ns. ensimmäinen sortokausi. Venäläiset pelkäsivät, että Saksa hyökkää Venäjään Suomen kautta, eikä Suomi halua puolustautua vaan liittyy Saksaan. Bobrikovin tarkoituksena oli hävittää Suomen autonomia ja venäläistää Suomi. Hänen toimintansa seurauksena muun muassa venäjän kielen opetusta lisättiin kouluissa ja yliopistossa, venäläisille annettiin oikeus virkoihin Suomessa ja suomalaisia kutsuttiin Venäjän armeijaan. Suomalaiset vastustivat venäläistämistoimia voimakkaasti, mutta se ei auttanut. Lopulta virkamies Schauman ampui Bobrikovin.Venäjällä kansa oli tyytymätöntä keisarin hallitukseen, ja siellä järjestettiin paljon mielenilmauksia. Vuonna 1905 myös Suomeen levisi suurlakko, jossa suomalaiset vaativat keisaria palauttamaan sille sen perustuslailliset oikeudet. Suurlakon aikana perustettiin punakaarti (kapinalliset) ja valkokaarti (laillinen hallitus). Suurlakko ja Venäjän sisäiset ongelmat pakottivat keisarin kumoamaan manifestin. Vuonna 1908 venäläistämistoimet alkoivat uudelleen ja jatkuivat vuoden 1917 saakka. Aikaa sanotaan toiseksi sortokaudeksi. 1800-luvun lopulla Suomi oli jakaantunut oikeistoon (perustuslailliset puolueet) ja vasemmistoon (sosiaalidemokraattinen puolue) Vasemmisto ajoi työväen oikeuksia ja yleistä äänioikeutta. Sortokausien välisenä aikana perustettiin eduskunta ja säädettiin uusi vaalilaki, joka antoi kaikille äänioikeuden. Osa vasemmistolaisista oli kommunisteja.

 

Ensimmäinen maailmansodan aikaa

maailmansota 1

Vuonna 1914 alkoi ensimmäinen maailmansota. Silloin Suomessa alettiin puhumaan itsenäistymisen mahdollisuudesta. Toivottiin, että Venäjä häviäisi, jolloin Suomen olisi ollut mahdollista vapautua. Suomalaisia miehiä lähetettiin sotilaskoulutukseen Saksaan ja heistä tehtiin jääkäripataljoona.

Suomi itsenäistyy

Venäjällä kansa oli väsynyt sotaan ja nälkään ja tarttui aseisiin. Vuonna 1917 tapahtui Venäjän vallankumous, jolloin keisarin pakotettiin luopumaan vallasta. Perustettiin väliaikainen hallitus, joka palautti Suomelle autonomian. Vuonna 1917 sosiaalidemokraatit voittivat vaaleissa ja eduskunta otti itselleen maan korkeimman vallan. Suomen ulkopoliittiset asiat hoiti edelleen Venäjä. Venäjän väliaikainen hallitus ei pitänyt eduskunnan toimista ja hajotti sen. Työläiset järjestivät lakon, jossa he vaativat työväen olojen parantamista ja 8-tuntista päivää. Syksyllä 1917 Venäjällã bolševikit kaappasivat vallan ja perustivat Neuvostoliiton. Suomessa oli epävarmuutta, koska suomalaiset eivät tienneet, kuka tulee hallitsemaan Neuvostoliittoa ja voiko luottaa seuraavaan hallitukseen vai ei. Pehr Svinhufvud antoi eduskunnalle ulkoministeri Ståhlbergin laatiman esityksen Suomen itsenäistymisestä. Eduskunta hyväksyi esityksen 6.12.1917 ja Svinhufvud lähti viemään sitä Pietariin. Neuvostoliitto hyvãksyi Suomen itsenäisyyden heti. Valtionjohtaja Leninin ajatuksena oli se, että kommunismi leviää lopulta myös Suomeen, joten  Suomen tarvinnut kuulua Neuvostoliittoon.  Neuvostoliiton tunistuksen jälkeen Suomi tarvitsi vielä muiden ulkovaltojen tunnistusta, joten esitys lähetettiin aluksi Ruotsiin, Ranskaan ja Saksaan, jotka tunnistivat Suomen itsenäisyyden heti. Suomen ja Neuvostoliiton raja piirrettiin vuonna 1920.

sisällissota (1918)

Suomen itsenäistymistä seurasi heti sisällissota (1918), jonka voitti laillinen hallitus. Sodan jälkeen Suomesta haluttiin tehdä kuningaskunta, koska epäiltiin ettei Suomi pysy muuten itsenäisenä. Kuninkaaksi valittiin saksalainen prinssi. Saksa kuitenkin hävisi sodan, joten Suomeen ei enää haluttu kuningasta vaan siitä tuli demokraattinen tasavalta.Itsenäisyyden säilyttämiseksi Suomen oli tärkeää pysyä puolueettomana. Myöhemmin, vuosina 1939-1940, Suomi joutui puolustamaan itsenäisyyttään talvisodassa Neuvostoliittoa vastaan.

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